Know your Liver and How Liver Works

The liver is a vital organ with a wide range of functions that are crucial for maintaining overall health and well-being. It is located in the upper right side of the abdomen, just beneath the ribcage. Here are some of the key functions of the liver:

  1. Metabolism of Nutrients: The liver plays a central role in the metabolism of various nutrients, including carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It stores glucose as glycogen and releases it into the bloodstream as needed to maintain stable blood sugar levels. The liver also helps convert amino acids into proteins and synthesizes important molecules such as clotting factors and enzymes.
  2. Detoxification: One of the liver’s major functions is detoxifying harmful substances from the blood, including drugs, alcohol, and toxins. It breaks down these substances into less harmful compounds that can be eliminated from the body through urine or bile.
  3. Bile Production: The liver produces bile, a digestive fluid that helps emulsify fats in the small intestine, facilitating their digestion and absorption. Bile is stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine when needed.
  4. Storage of Nutrients: The liver acts as a storage reservoir for various nutrients and vitamins, such as vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12, and iron. It releases these stored nutrients into the bloodstream as needed.
  5. Synthesis of Blood Proteins: The liver produces a variety of important proteins, including albumin (which helps maintain blood volume and pressure), clotting factors (essential for blood coagulation), and immune system proteins.
  6. Regulation of Cholesterol: The liver helps regulate cholesterol levels in the blood by producing and removing cholesterol as necessary. It also plays a role in converting cholesterol into bile acids for excretion.
  7. Metabolism of Bilirubin: Bilirubin is a waste product produced from the breakdown of old red blood cells. The liver processes bilirubin and excretes it in bile. Any dysfunction in this process can lead to jaundice, a condition characterized by a yellowing of the skin and eyes.
  8. Storage of Energy: The liver stores energy in the form of glycogen, which can be broken down into glucose and released into the bloodstream when the body needs an immediate energy source.
  9. Immune Function: Kupffer cells, specialized immune cells within the liver, help remove bacteria, viruses, and other harmful particles from the bloodstream.
  10. Synthesis of Hormones: The liver is involved in the synthesis of various hormones and hormone-like substances, including those that regulate blood pressure and contribute to overall hormonal balance.

The liver’s intricate functions make it a vital organ for maintaining numerous physiological processes within the body. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, is important for promoting liver health and preventing liver diseases.

The liver is located in the upper right part of the abdominal cavity. It lies below the diaphragm and above the stomach, right kidney and intestines. The liver is a dark reddish-brown, triangle-shaped organ that weighs about 3 pounds. Liver has many functions.

There are 2 different sources of blood supplying the liver:

Oxygen-rich blood flows to the liver through the hepatic artery.

Nutrient-rich blood flows from the intestines to the liver through the hepatic portal vein.

The liver holds about 1 pint (13%) of the body’s blood supply at any given time. The liver has 2 main parts (lobes). Both of them are composed of 8 segments consisting of a thousand small lobules (lobules). These lobules are connected by smaller ducts (ducts) that connect to larger ducts from the common hepatic duct. The common hepatic duct carries bile produced by liver cells to the gallbladder and the first part of the small intestine (the duodenum). It does so through the common bile duct. Bile is a clear green or yellow fluid that helps break down the food you eat.

Front view of the liver, gall bladder and duodenum.

liver function

The liver regulates most chemical levels in the blood and excretes a product called bile. It helps in flushing out the waste products from the liver. All the blood coming out of the stomach and intestines passes through the liver. The liver processes this blood. It breaks down, balances and builds up nutrients. It also breaks down the drug into forms that are easier for the rest of the body to use. Over 500 important functions have been identified with the liver. Some of the more famous works include:

production of bile. It helps move waste and break down fats in the small intestine during digestion.

Production of certain proteins for the blood plasma

production of cholesterol and special proteins to help move fat through the body

Converting excess glucose into glycogen for storage (This glycogen can then be converted into glucose for energy.)

Glucose balance and production as needed

Regulation of blood levels of amino acids. These form the building blocks of proteins.

Processing of hemoglobin for distribution of iron (The liver stores iron.)

Conversion of toxic ammonia to urea (Urea is one of the end products of protein metabolism that is excreted in the urine.)

cleaning the blood from drugs and other toxins

control blood clotting

resisting infection by creating immune factors and removing certain bacteria from the bloodstream

clearance of bilirubin. The accumulation of bilirubin will cause the skin and eyes to turn yellow.

When the liver breaks down harmful substances, their byproducts are excreted in the bile or blood. The byproducts of bile enter the intestine. They leave the body in feces. The byproducts of the blood are filtered by the kidneys and passed out of the body as urine.

Liver Working

Certainly, let’s delve into more detail about how the liver works in various aspects:

The liver is a metabolic powerhouse. It receives nutrients absorbed from the digestive system via the portal vein. It then processes these nutrients to regulate blood sugar levels, synthesize proteins, and metabolize fats. For instance, when blood sugar is high after a meal, the liver stores excess glucose as glycogen. When blood sugar drops, the liver releases glucose back into the bloodstream to maintain energy levels.

The liver is responsible for processing and detoxifying various substances, including drugs, alcohol, and toxins. It converts these compounds into less harmful forms that can be excreted from the body. This detoxification process involves a series of chemical reactions, making these substances water-soluble and easier to eliminate.

Bile Production and Secretion:
The liver produces bile, a greenish-yellow fluid essential for digestion. Bile contains bile salts, which help emulsify fats in the small intestine. Bile also aids in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) and promotes the elimination of waste products, including bilirubin.

Storage and Release:
The liver acts as a storage unit. It stores glucose in the form of glycogen for quick energy release when needed. It also stores vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin B12 and iron, which are released into the bloodstream as necessary. Additionally, the liver stores blood, helping to regulate blood volume and pressure.

Synthesis of Proteins:
The liver produces a variety of proteins crucial for overall health. These include albumin, which helps maintain blood volume and pressure; clotting factors, which are essential for proper blood coagulation; and immune system proteins that help fight infections.

Bilirubin Processing:
Bilirubin is a waste product produced when old red blood cells are broken down. The liver processes bilirubin and combines it with bile, which is then excreted into the intestines. Bilirubin gives stool its characteristic brown color.

Cholesterol Regulation:
The liver helps regulate cholesterol levels by synthesizing cholesterol and removing excess cholesterol from the bloodstream. It converts cholesterol into bile acids, which are then excreted into the intestines and eventually eliminated from the body.

Storage of Vitamins and Minerals:
The liver stores various vitamins (such as A, D, E, and K) and minerals (such as iron and copper) that are essential for various bodily functions. These stored nutrients can be released into the bloodstream as needed.

Regulation of Hormones:
The liver is involved in the metabolism and clearance of hormones, including sex hormones and thyroid hormones, helping to maintain hormonal balance in the body.

The liver’s remarkable ability to perform these diverse functions is critical for maintaining overall health. Liver health is essential, and conditions that affect the liver’s function can lead to serious health issues. Maintaining a balanced diet, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, staying hydrated, and avoiding exposure to toxins are all crucial for supporting optimal liver function.

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